Londons transport services offer you a special experience of the city. Heres a round-up of the transport choices available to you.
◆ London Underground
There are 11 colour-coded Underground lines. Services run regularly from around 05：00 to 00：30 （Sunday 07：30 to 23：30） on most routes.
Visit tfl.gov.uk/tube for more information.
Tip：Always stand on the right when using the escalators （电动扶梯） at Tube stations. It can get hot and busy on the Tube during peak travel times， so you may prefer to travel outside these hours.
A cheap and easy way to travel around London. They generally run from 05：00 to 00：30. Night buses operate on many major routes from around midnight to 05：00， and some operate a 24-hour service.
It is not possible to pay for your London bus fare in cash. Instead you can pay with a Visitor Oyster card， Oyster card， Travelcard or UK-issued contactless payment card. A single bus journey is ￡1.50 with an Oyster card or UK-issued contactless payment card.
To help you get home， if you dont have enough credit on your Oyster card， you will be able to make one more bus journey.
After this you will need to top up the credit on your card before you use it again. If your contactless payment card has been issued outside the UK， please check tfl.gov.uk/contactless before you use your card to travel on our bus services. For any international transaction fees （手續费） that may apply， please check with your card issuer.
For more information visit tfl.gov.uk/buses.
Tip：Some bus routes are especially good for sightseeing — try routes 9， 14， 15 and 22. The New Routemaster bus featured in the James Bond film Skyfall and runs on routes 9， 11， 24， 38 and 390.
If you run out of credit on your Visitor Oyster card， its easy to add more at：
·Touchscreen ticket machines in Tube， DLR， London Overground and some National Rail stations.
· Around 4，000 Oyster Ticket Stops cross London （Find your nearest one at ticketstoplocator.tfl.gov.uk）.
·Travel &Visitor Information Centres.
·London Overground station ticket offices.
21. During the rush hour， visitors at Tube stations are advised to_______.
A. stand side by side
B. avoid using the escalators
C. take the tube at fixed times
D. take advantage of off-peak hours
22. The underlined part ＂top up＂ can best be replaced by ＂_______＂.
A. use up B. add
C. think about D. balance
23. If a visitor wants to find the nearest Oyster Ticket Stop， he should visit_______.
Standing in front of the ＂Chilkoot Trailhead＂ sign for 15 minutes， I didnt take one step. I was afraid of bears. Thats what was keeping me from walking the trail alone. I had hiked through black-bear country back home in Colorado， but now I was in Alaska， home to the fierce brown grizzly bear.
Fortunately， a friendly couple arrived and asked me to take their picture. We started talking and soon were walking the trail together. I was relieved. Ron and Carol were from Alaska and they taught me how to stay safe in bear country.
I had finally started my hike along the famous Chilkoot Trail， where more than 115 years ago， thousands of gold miners had walked. I was writing a book about the Klondike Gold Rush， and I wanted to follow in the footsteps of the miners to know what it was really like.
Ron， Carol， and I walked through the forest. As I was looking around at the beautiful scenery in the forest， I tripped （絆倒） over a big tree root and injured my ankle. Fortunately， my ankle felt better in the morning， and we followed the trail. We went to bed early that night because the following day would be the toughest hike of all.
At dawn， we started hiking up the steep， green valley. Icy glaciers covered the mountains above. Soon we were as high as the clouds and could see only 20 feet in front of us. Finally， we reached the top of the Chilkoot Pass and saw a Canadian flag moving in the heavy wind. Hours later， we arrived at our campground.
The following morning， my ankle was feeling fine， and my fear of bears had mostly disappeared. I said good-bye to Ron and Carol and walked alone for the next two days. Without seeing any bears the entire trip， I finally arrived at Bennett Lake. I rode the old train down to the town of Skagway and checked into my hotel.
While relaxing in my comfortable bed in the hotel， I thought of the miners from the Klondike Gold Rush. When the miners reached Bennett Lake， they had to cut down trees， build boats， and travel 500 miles down dangerous rivers and lakes. Then， when they finally reached the goldfields， they had to start digging.
24. Why did the author stand in front of the ＂Chilkoot Trailhead＂ sign for 15 minutes？
A. Because he felt nervous.
B. To wait for Ron and Carol.
C. Because he met a black bear.
D. To take photos of the beautiful scenery.
25. The author hiked along the Chilkoot Trail to______.
A. look for gold
B. search Alaska for bears
C. enjoy the beauty of nature
D. find inspiration for his writing
26. When crossing the Chilkoot Trail， the author______.
A. hurt himself by accident
B. once tried to take a boat trip
C. got help from two local miners
D. was almost killed by a brown bear
27. What kind of feeling did the author mainly show in the last paragraph？
A. Joy. B. Pity. C. Worry. D. Doubt.
Sunjit Patel is a designer with a well-known publishing company. He lives in South London， and for the last three years， he has been working from home. He prefers working from home because he can spend more time with his family and have a better work-life balance. Sunjit isnt alone： in Britain， there are 2.1 million people who work from home at present. In addition， about eight million people spend some time working in the home rather than in an office. This is almost twice as many as ten years ago.
This rapidly-growing trend towards working from home is the same in many countries. But what are the reasons for it？ The main reason is technological： easy access to broadband and the availa-bility of phone and video-conferencing. These make it possible for people to use their home as an office in an efficient and cost-effective way.
Other reasons for homeworking are the benefits to both employers and employees： office space is costly， so if an organisation can reduce its workstations， it may be able to move to a smaller site. Employees often work better at home： travelling to work can be a waste of time and tiring. Many homeworkers save a lot of time if they dont travel to work and they can start the day fresher and therefore work more efficiently； parents with young children appreciate the flexibility that homeworking allows and are more relaxed.
Sunjit Patel says， ＂I have been working from home since my son was born and have been really enjoying it. But I can tell you that homeworking requires special skills like self-discipline and time management. Ive known my boss and workmates for a long time now， which really helps because youve got to trust each other. You also need to have regular communication， by phone， email or video conferences， and you need to make regular trips to your office. Otherwise， you really miss out on the social side of work.＂
Not everyone agrees with Sunjit though. ＂The only people who can work from home full-time are those who do an unnecessary job.＂ Fortunately for Sunjit and the 2.1 million like him， not many people think that way！
28. We can infer from Paragraph 1 that ______.
A. Sunjit Patel is a well-known designer
B. homeworking is generally on the increase
C. Sunjit Patel is homeschooling his son
D. most designers in London work from home
29. Paragraph 3 is mainly about ______.
A. the daily life of homeworkers
B. the advantages of homeworking
C. how employers increase efficiency
D. why employees dislike travelling to work
30. According to Sunjit Patel， people who want to work from home should ______.
A. show great self-control
B. improve their social life
C. have excellent communication skills
D. make frequent trips to their workplaces
31. What can we infer from the last paragraph？ A. Most homeworkers do a pointless job.
B. Many people are against homeworking.
C. Peoples opinions on homeworking vary.
D. Homeworking influences many peoples life.
Bill Clinton， expresident of the United States， is a very popular speech giver and regularly gives talks all over the world， to many different audiences. He is so effective at giving talks because he has a special quality which we call ＂charisma（魅力）＂.
Nowadays， psychologists are becoming very interested in charisma and want to redefine its meaning. People often misunderstand what charisma is and think of it as a kind of fame， but it is not the same as fame. Charisma is a kind of magic and is relatively rare. A well-known American psychologist thinks that charismatic people are basically excellent communicators. However， they have other qualities such as sensitivity， self-confidence， eloquence（口才） and vision.
Charismatic personalities are able to draw people to them， and people feel happy in their company. There is a sense of ＂togetherness＂ when a charismatic person is with other people. A good example of this ability， some say， is the famous American， Oprah Winfrey. She is a highly-successful businesswoman and is probably best known as the presenter of a very popular talk show. Oprah is able to relate to audiences at her shows and they respond well to her. Her charismatic personality has made her one of the richest women in the world. She owns several houses and publishes her own magazines. Presently， she is presenting a new series of the Oprah Winfrey Show. She also runs a book club， which influences the nations reading habits and may be one of the reasons why people are reading more these days in the USA.
A woman who had extraordinary charisma was the film star， Marilyn Monroe. A beautiful woman and a talented actress， she was always the centre of attention wherever she went.
Unlike fame， charisma doesnt disappear over time. Even now， more than fifty years after her death， when young people see Monroe in her films， her charisma seems as fresh and powerful as ever.
32. Bill Clinton is good at giving talks because ______.
A. he has a quality called charisma
B. he was once president of the USA
C. he has many fans that support him
D. he is well-known all over the world
33. According to the text， charismatic people ______.
A. are all effective speech makers
B. are all confident and successful
C. can easily attract and interest people
D. often try to create a calm atmosphere
34. What do we know about Oprah Winfrey？
A. She is most famous as a magazine publisher.
B. She has a happy relationship with her audiences.
C. She often gives talks to American young people.
D. She writes books to influence Americans readings habits.
35. The author mentions the popularity of Marilyn Monroe to show that ______.
A. fame is as important as charisma
B. famous people always have charisma
C. charisma doesnt become weaker over time
D. Monroe is an extraordinarily talented actress
People are consumers. We have to spend large parts of our days finding， buying， cooking and eating our food. Did you ever think it might be nice to be able to make your own food like plants do？ 36 They perform a process called photosynthesis using light from the sun， water and carbon dioxide. The end result of this chemical reaction is sugar for the plant to ＂eat＂. The plant gives off water and oxygen.
37 Plants have special structures called chloroplasts that animals dont have. These structures are filled with chlorophyll， which gives leafy green plants their green color. Their main job is to absorb light from the sun. Chloroplasts can absorb every color except green. Light makes chlorophyll active. It creates an energy that separates water out into hydrogen and oxygen.
38 Hydrogen from the water combines with carbon from the carbon dioxide we breathe out. Oxygen is sent out into the air.
39 Plants rely on the carbon dioxide that we breathe out， and we rely on the oxygen that they ＂breathe＂ out. This is one good reason for protecting plant life on Earth. Many plants can produce a constant supply of oxygen for us. We need plants in order to survive.
Conservation projects around the globe are aimed at protecting our natural resources， including numerous species of plants. 40
A. Plants are producers.
B. Chemical reactions take place.
C. Animals cant live without water.
D. People and plants make perfect partners.
E. So how do plants do it， and why cant we？
F. There would be too much carbon dioxide in the air.
G. Our quality of life and the fresh air we breathe depend upon our green plant partners.
I went to complete some incomplete business this afternoon. I 41 the car and was walking towards my destination， when from a distance I saw a（n） 42 man walking towards me in the opposite direction.
As we came close， I saw that he was walking 43 in measured steps and there was a look of pain on his face. He was not feeling 44 ， which I could clearly see. I moved on， wanting to go 45 and complete my 46 work.
I soon 47 my destination， completed my work and was 48 where the car was parked， when 49 from a distance I saw the same man sitting on the road. I went up to him.
I bent down and saw that he was tired and
50 . I was concerned and asked him where he stayed 51 my intention was to 52 him home in my car. He gave me the name of the place where he stayed， 53 ， the name didnt seem familiar and I didnt want to spend too much time 54 the place， considering the condition of my elderly friend. I 55 on the opposite side of the road were a few auto rickshaws （自动人力车）.
I knew the auto rickshaw drivers were the best 56 to unknown places. I called one of the auto rickshaws over and told the 57 to take my friend to his place. After a brief conversation with the man， the driver had a fairly good idea of the direction he had to take to reach the 58 . I asked him about the 59 and gave him the money.
My friend 60 his hand and said softly， ＂Thank you！＂ I waved back to the stranger who briefly came， touched my life， and moved away， never to be seen again.
41. A. got into B. started
C. pulled out D. parked
42. A. tall B. elderly C. strong D. attractive
43. A. quietly B. calmly
C. slowly D. hurriedly
44. A. comfortable B. satisfied C. warm D. bad
45. A. peacefully B. cheerfully
C. carefully D. quickly
46. A. difficult B. unfinished
C. important D. regular
47. A. reached B. left
C. changed D. got
48. A. finding out B. looking for
C. returning to D. getting through
49. A. still B. already
C. only D. again
50. A. exhausted B. impatient
C. surprised D. nervous
51. A. once B. as
C. when D. if
52. A. see B. call
C. drive D. assist
53. A. however B. instead
C. besides D. therefore
54. A. missing out B. searching for
C. coming across D. wandering around
55. A. concluded B. suggested C. considered D. noticed
56. A. teachers B. performers
C. guides D. friends
57. A. driver B. worker
C. host D. boss
58. A. point B. road
C. street D. destination
59. A. route B. situation
C. fare D. way
60. A. shook B. waved C. raised D. clapped
In science fiction， space is often described as a silent， empty place but things are different.
61 reality， all of the equipment 62 （use） to keep a space station functioning can be so noisy 63 the astronauts working there cannot communicate with one another 64 （easy）— they have to shout. The high levels of sound may affect their work， and can sometimes even mean that they are 65 （able） to sleep. In addition， they must face other problems in space. Scientists have identified over 70，000 items of rubbish left by former astronauts 66 still remain in orbit around the earth. Most of them are 67 （small） than a tennis ball， but they still threaten the 68 （safe） of exploring in space. Even a small piece of metal could cause a terrible disaster if it hit a manned spacecraft. Although generally astronauts do make an effort 69 （bring） most of their rubbish home， they dont always manage it. And they dont just leave their rubbish floating in space either .There is even a broken camera among the litter left behind on 70 moon.
I have read your letter， in which you mention that you wanted to lose weight by dieting.
Its naturally for young girls of your ages to wish to look beautiful. Therefore， in my opinion， health is more important than beauty. For a student， studying is the first thing to consider while appearance is the second. So dont let others opinions to affect your normal life. However， if you do want to lose weight， its good idea to do it by getting more exercise and change unhealthy eating habits. The most important thing is that you keep a healthy state of mind， as they will help with your studies， and will also help you overcome difficult in dieting.
I hope my advice will be helpful with you.